Citing in essay chicago style


Direct Quotes

Older men's somewhat delayed reduction in alcohol consumption relative to older women highlights the importance of health care providers continuing to monitor men's alcohol consumption.


  • Chicago Citation Style - Color Coded Guide: In-Text & Parenthetical References.
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More broadly, out finding counter the widespread assumption that alcohol consumption and drinking problems invariably and rapidly decline past middle age and thus have limited relevance as late-life health issues, For many individuals, use of alcohol remains a consistent and important aspect of health status and social functioning even as they advance into later old age. Brennan, Schutte, Moos, and Moos, , Rather, employ the technique of rephrasing the cited idea into you own words.

Chicago Style Examples

This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. These resources follow The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition , which was issued in Since The Chicago Manual of Style CMOS is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart. As its name suggests, Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page that concludes the document. Note that the format of the title on the Works Cited sheet should be mirrored in the parenthetical reference i.

If there is no author, a title fragment should be used to make a connection between the use of the source and the citation for the source on the Works Cited page. Parenthetical references should be included immediately after the quotation marks used in direct quotations or immediately after the use of the source, even if these means including the parenthetical reference in the middle of the sentence. The following is the general form for parenthetical citations in APA style:. Example: Smith has argued this point.

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Chicago/Turabian Style - Citation Style Guides - Research Guides at University of Saskatchewan

Page numbers are not required in APA in-text citation. However, it is highly suggested that these be included. To include references to a specific part of the text, add the page number or chapter number after the year. Examples: Smith , p. When a work has two authors, both names should be cited every time the reference is required.

If a text has been authored by more than five individuals, the full listing of authors is not required in the first reference or any subsequent in-text references. First mention of the reference: Johnson, Smith, and Brown agree that… Subsequent mention: Johnson et al. If an organization has a recognizable abbreviation, this may be used in subsequent references.

Example of Chicago Manual of Style Citation

Title fragments should be formatted using the same punctuation as titles on the References page. For other considerations related to in-text referencing using the APA format, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 5th ed.

These are called endnotes. Although footnotes or notes at the bottom of the page are sometimes required, endnotes have become the predominant form of notes citations. When using endnotes to indicate the use of research sources, writers must also include a bibliography at the end of the essay. The note and the bibliographic entry include almost identical information but in a different format.

As the formats for notes are contingent on the format of the source for which the note is written, examples of note formats are included with the bibliographic examples available through the Citing Sources link. The B: entry would be included in the Bibliography at the end of the paper, while the N: entry gives examples to be used in footnotes or endnotes.

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For further information on note format or other issues related to citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style , 16th ed. Documentation 2, also called the Author-Date style, requires the use of parenthetical references in the text of the essay as well as a list of References.


  1. Chicago Style: Notes and In-Text Citations.
  2. Chicago 16th - Citing and referencing - Library guides at Monash University.
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  6. Chicago/Turabian Citation Style.
  7. Parenthetical references should be placed at the end of the sentence, before the period, when a resource has been used. If the sentence is either long enough or complex enough so that the cited portion of the sentence is not obvious, the parenthetical reference may instead be inserted immediately after the use of information from the source. Page numbers should be included whenever possible. The following examples illustrate parenthetical reference formats for works with more than one author.

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