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Feeling sleepy while researching for an essay? This was one of the best theories for a long time.
However, this method was close to autocratic style of management, so it was not suitable for everyone for various reasons because of diversity of cultures. Mayo made a research on it and concluded that individuals are best motivated when there is teamwork, freedom of communication among themselves and involvement of manager himself in working lives. Maslow with Herzberg developed a pyramid showing the needs of an individual starting from physiological needs and concluding with self-actualisation.
The pyramid consisted of five levels of needs of an individual.
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They believed that first need which needs to be fulfilled is physiological needs. Physiological needs are hunger and thirst. When these need have met then the second stage of the pyramid is safety needs. Each employee wants to be sure that we will not lose his or her job tomorrow and will not have financial problems. In general terms security and protection is their second need.
Another need which is also very important called social needs which represent emotional side of an employee. Love, friendship, belongingness, attention and care are characteristics of social needs which can make a major influence on employee and improve his or her efficiency.
The fourth stage is called esteem needs and it divides into two sub-sections internal and external. Self-esteem, self-respect, confidence and competence are related to internal esteems. Furthermore, cars, houses and other assets belong to external esteems. Finally, the last stage of need is called self-actualisation and it includes more advanced characteristics such as need of going up in career, gaining more knowledge, having more opportunities and new aims. So, Maslow believed that fulfilling these needs can change the employees dramatically.
Thus, it is hard to meet all requirements for each employee because it will take lots of time and money to meet them because each individual has different needs. He also, advised for line managers to use such methods as job enlargement, job enrichment and empowerment. Job enlargement means to give to an employee a variety of tasks to avoid him be bored on doing the same thing consistently.
Job enrichment is similar to job enlargement but aims to give more challenging tasks rather than easy ones. Empowerment simply means to leave to the employees to decide themselves their working conditions and life during the work. Also, it was mentioned that communication process and method is very important in the business, because some of the communicating methods are not appropriate if someone wants to announce some very important information or even might be misunderstood because of communicating method.
Manager should be able to explain explicitly to the employee what it is asked from him using appropriate method of communication.
For an instance, if there is an important announcement for an accountant he can call him directly and ask to visit his office rather than sending an e-mail and waiting for respond which normally takes much longer time. Another important skill of a line manager is a decision making. Line managers must be able to identify problem, analyse it and alternatives of it and solve it in short time to avoid confusions among employees. This report will try to make an analysis of the existing organisational culture, structure, and management style of Harvester Restaurant.
It is presented with adequate emphasis on how management, when confronted with a new reality, was able to identify its weaknesses in its management structure, style, and existing culture and the corresponding remedies and management initiatives through empowerment and other changes in the style and structure of their management. Harvester Restaurant is a wholly owned brand within the Forte Restaurants Division and was recently purchased by the Bass Group Ashness and Lashley, p. By , it had 78 chains of restaurants around the United Kingdom. Today, it has over 2, drinking and entertainment establishments Wikipedia.
Its previous management setup was thought to be obstructing the way its employees commit themselves to the quality of their service to customers. Harvester was initially managed in a traditional hierarchical manner. Each restaurant unit was managed by a restaurant manager and two to three assistant managers. This management team was responsible for the day-to-day running of the unit which includes ordering stocks, maintaining the security of materials and money, cashing up and banking takings, locking premises, staffing and management of all the people within the unit Ashness and Lashley, The restaurant unit manager reports directly to a regional manager.
Four regional managers are directly accountable to the operations managers north and south divisions while the operations managers report to the managing director. This structure produced five layers between the customers and the managing director. The management team then became aware of the new emerging demands and discerning attitude of customers. At this point, there seems to be a problem with the layers of management. In this structure, decisions are made at the top and passed down through several intermediaries.
But according to studies made, people resist solutions imposed by people who lack familiarity with day-to-day operations Harvard Business Essentials, The problem then is that in this structure, senior level managers are better at telling people what to do than at getting employees to collaborate and made significant contributions.
Under this Harvester management setup, a lot of problems emerged.
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There was low commitment from their employees. The rate of turnover was high. The organisation itself was too dependent on their managers for decisions. Resources and skills were under-utilized Ashness and Lashley, Too much attention was given to processes and not on the attentive values. Employees, who are usually the ones in direct contact with customers and who usually hold direct knowledge on the day-to-day operations are usually not listened to. But there are other factors which might have been influencing these happenings. According to Duck , most leaders do not have enough vertical contact with others in the organisation or enough time to stay in touch.
While most leaders recognize the value of being connected with people at every level and of getting unfiltered information, very few know how to make it happen without investing more time than they feel they have available. While it has set up long term goals and mechanisms to satisfy its customers, it has failed to address their immediate needs and concerns.
Sample Business School Essays
It is not altogether uncommon for conflict to occur inside the organisation. Conflict occurs when individuals or groups are not obtaining what they need or want. People in organisations bring with them different educational backgrounds, interests, preferences, religious and ethical values, and personalities. Usually, it causes the flow of real communication which results to the identification and resolution of problems.
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